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This is where the sugars are derived from the starch present in the malt. This process takes place in a vessel called the mash-tun.

Hot water at a controlled temperature is added in stages to the grist and the mixture is run into the
mash-tun. Controlled temperature is critical to enhance the activity of the enzymes. The resulting mixture, called the Wort, is passed through a sieve-like base made up of several slits at the bottom of the mash-tun; to produce a beige-coloured liquid cooled down to a temperature ideal for fermentation.

This extraction of sugars can be repeated upto two more times to extract all the goodness from the malt. The spent grains, called the Draff, are drained out and sold back to the local farmers as animal feed.


The sugars in the Wort are turned into alcohol by fermentation with yeast, turning the Wort into abeer-like liquid called the Wash.The peak temperature for the cultured yeast to convert the Wort into alcohol is 34 O C.

It is crucial notto exceed this temperature during the process.The fermentation takes place in a vessel called the Washback. Traditional washbacks were madeusing wood from Douglas fir, Larch wood or American Oregon pine. Modern distilleries use stainlesssteel washbacks, with an ongoing debate of the advantages of the latter.

Typically, fermentation lasts 60 to 72 hours and should not be less that 48 hours.The resulting Wash has an ABV of 8%.It is common for distillers to filter the yeast from this liquid to make a beer-drink called Joe.

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